An alteration in the gut microbiota can potentially increase the risk of enteropathogenic infections. The authors randomized iron supplementation to South African children and measured whether the iron-group had changes in their bacteria profile, the amount of short-chain fatty acids, and gut inflammation. The authors found that compared to the placebo group, children given iron supplementation did not have significantly different bacterial groups in the gut, fecal short-chain fatty acids concentration, or gut inflammation.
Dostal, A., J. Baumgartner, N. Riesen, C. Chassard, CM Smuts, MB Zimmermann, and C. Lacroix. "Effects of Iron Supplementation on Dominant Bacterial Groups in the Gut, Faecal SCFA and Gut Inflammation: A Randomised, Placebo-controlled Intervention Trial in South African Children." British Journal of Nutrition 112, no. 4 (2014): 547-56.